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       The activity of cultivating edible white button mushrooms is no different from cultivating any other agricultural/vegetable produce which are explained in the following steps:

The raw materials required are: Paddy straw or Wheat straw, Chicken Manure, Urea, Ammonium Sulphate, Gypsum. The composition may vary from farm to farm, region to region depends upon climatic conditions. The cultivation of button mushroom is divided into two parts. One is Outdoor preparation of raw materials and the other one is Indoor growing.

A. Outdoor Preparation:

There two stages involved in raw materials preparation.

Stage-I:  Compost Preparation

Wet Paddy Straw is added with ingredients like Chicken manure, Gypsum and Ammonium Sulphate compound. Then by adding sufficient water, thorough mixing isdone. Then, this mixture is transferred to bunkers for further decomposition under aeration. The temperature of 78 degrees centigrade is maintained for this process. Approximately 6-7 days is required for this process.

     Stage-II: Pasteurisation and Conditioning of Compost

After five days, this compost (above said mixture) is transferred from bunkers to tunnels for pasteurization and conditioning. During Pasteurisation, the compost is subjected to 56–60 degrees centigrade for eight hours to destroy the pathogenic organisms. After eight hours in the pasteurisation stage, cooling is given to reduce the temperature.  During the conditioning, the compost temperature is maintained between 46–49 degrees centigrade. Approximately 6 to 7 days is required to receive good compost.

 What we prepare is called Phase II compost. Outdoor preparation requires 12- 14 days.

B. Indoor Growing:

There are 5 stages involved in the growth of edible white button mushroom:

1.Spawn run stage (12-13 days)

2.Case run stage (6 days)

3.Venting stage (2 days)

4.Pinning stage (8 days)

5.Harvesting Stage (13-14 days)

 Stage-I: Spawn Run in the growing rooms

The above prepared compost is transferred to growing rooms after mixing with SPAWN (seed) and placed in the shelves (Beds) or in the bags. This layer will be of about 200 mm thickness. The SPAWN run (i.e., spreading of SPAWN) takes about 12 to 13 days. This is done under controlled environment conditions in the growing rooms by maintaining the compost temperature up to 28 degrees centigrade.

 Stage-II: Case Run stage/ Soil Application

After the SPAWN Run, the beds are cased with soil of about 50 mm thickness. The casing soil is prepared by mixing Coir Pith, Ball clay or any other clay materials and applied on beds. The casing soil acts as a water buffer. If necessary, sufficient micronutrients are also added in the casing soil. After application of the soil, the SPAWN (seed) will grow and spread in all directions. It may take 6 days.

 Stage-III: Venting

After this, venting is done by giving fresh Air, required Temperature, Carbon-Dioxide and moisture to SPAWN, upon which it starts forming Pins with Heads within the soil which were applied earlier.

 Stage-IV: Pinning

After Venting, the pin heads will start forming and it means that the roots of the Mushroom are only grown in the middle and upper surface of the soil and the roots are up to a max of 20 to 30 mm in the soil bed. Pin heads will be fully grown in 8days’ time.

 Stage- V: Harvesting

All the grown pin heads are called as Mushrooms and this is harvested (Picking) in 2 flushes for 12 -13 days, which are sold for human consumption. Once harvest is completed, then the compost and the soil bed are cooked out and the growing area will be ready for next cycle. The total cultivation/ production cycle of the edible white button mushroom is 41-43 days.

 In abroad, harvest will be done in three flushes also. It depends upon the compost used and the growing procedures. But in our country we do generally two flushes.

 Packing and Sales:

There were 2 different types of packing used for sale of mushroom, which are:

1.      Bulk packing

2.      Punnet box packing;

In the Bulk packing, 5-10 kgs of mushroom could be packed and sold.

In the punnet box packing (200 gms), the boxes are covered either with routine polyethene covers or with breathable nano film. In the case of nano film packing, our company uses threespecially designed packing machines imported from Italy. Further, the company has few refrigerated vehicles to transport the harvested mushroom to different parts of Tamil Nadu and neighbouring places in a stipulated time. Because of quality, good packing and timely delivery, our products fetchgood rates in the market.

The shelf life of the Mushroom is 4-7 days if properly kept in 4 degrees centigrade.

Yield Status:

Generally, the average annual yield of white button mushroom is calculated from the following standard procedure:


i.        The area of the compost spread on shelves in each racks in terms of sq.fts or sq. mts in a growing room (or)


ii.      The total compost used in each bagin a growing room and


iii.    The number of growing rooms or area that was used along with the number of cultivation cycle achieved in a year.


number of bags in each cycle  X yield per bag (in Kgs) = Total yield/ cycle:       [Annual yield = {(Total yield / cycle) X number of cycles in a year, (generally 7 cycles)}]


area used in each cycle (sq.ft or X yield per sq.ft or = Total yield / cycle: [Annual yield = {(Total yield / cycle) X number of cycles in a year, (generally 7 cycles)}]

        The international standard of the average yield is as follows:

·         If it is abag of 10 Kgs of compost, yield would be 1.9 to 2.1 Kgs of Mushroom/ cycle.

·         In terms of area, 1 Sq ft of compost (10 kgs)yield would be 1.9 to 2.1 kgs of Mushroom/ Cycle and annual yield is around 15 Kgs.

·         Incase of 1 Sq mt compost (100 kgs)yield wouldbe around 20.0 + Kgs mushroom/ cycle.

        But Indian average yield would be in the ranges between 1.5 to 1.9 kg Mushroom/cycle.

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